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As I got confused when using ND or gray filters when comparing transparency, shutter speeds or aperture levels, I have created a usefull table here.

 

Gray Filter Conversion Table

Filter  Neutral density ND  Transparency  Extension of exposure time

f-stops

ND2 0,3 50% 2x 1
ND4  0,6  25% 4x
ND8 0,9  12,6% 8x
ND16 1,2 6,3% 16x
ND64 1,8 1,6% 64x 6
ND1000 3 0,10% 1000x 10

 

Longexposure of Woudagemaal in LemmerLongexposure shot of the Woudagemaal in Lemmer (NL). 1 minute 30 seconds exposure time. Clouds and water are extremely soft. Nikon D500, Sigma 18-35mm F1,8 DC HSM | Art, HAIDA Slim Pro II ND-Filter

Which gray filters do I recommend, what should you pay attention to?

I myself use gray or ND filters from HAIDA. The filters are of good quality, in the middle price range and completely sufficient for my purposes. In detail I use the series "HAIDA Slim PRO II Digital MC Neutral Grey Filters", because they are characterized by a small thickness and therefore do not cause shadows in the motive. In addition, the filters are more space-saving to transport than thicker models.

 

Advantages

  • Very thin, therefore no shading and vignetting

  • No color distortion

  • Practical to transport due to end caps

  • Perfect to screw on and off, clean thread

 
If you want to use an absolute premium product and perhaps attach more importance to the coating than I do, you will receive very good, but also more expensive products with the grey filters from "B+W":

 

My first choice as a Lightroom alternative

I'm gonna do some advertising. I've been dealing with all kinds of image editing software for months, comparing a lot, testing a lot and finally choosing RAW developer and Lightroom alternative Luminar 3.

Have a look and try the free trial version. Just click on the banner:

Luminar 3 recommendation

All the links in this text are Amazon Affiliate Links, and by clicking on an affiliate link I will earn a percentage of your subsequent Amazon purchases. However, this circumstance does not influence the background of my product recommendation. This product recommendation is independent, honest and sincere. 

Bei allen genannten Links handelt es sich um Amazon-Affiliate-Links. Durch einen Klick auf einen Affiliate-Link werde ich prozentual an Euren darauf folgenden Amazon-Einkäufen beteiligt. Dieser Umstand beeinflusst aber nicht die Hintergründe meiner Produktempfehlung. Diese Produktempfehlung erfolgt unabhängig, ehrlich und aufrichtig.

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